Adult Hip Dysplasia
Adult Dysplasia of the Hip is a condition where there is abnormal development of the hip joint, leading instability of the hip at a young age. Hip dysplasia causes the joint to become unstable because the socket (acetabulum) is too shallow for the ball (femoral head) to rotate properly. This in turn predisposes the joint to wear out faster than it should, leading to arthritis. The labrum (soft ring of cartilage lining the socket) is prone to damage or tear as it is often enlarged in size in patients with dysplasia. Nearly 1/3rd of all cases of osteoarthritis are attributed to hip dysplasia. The hip joint may even be dislocated in severe cases of dysplasia.
Supportive measures and lifestyle changes such as pain management, weight loss and physiotherapy can help in early stages of dysplasia.
Young patients without significant arthritis or damage to the cartilage, may be able to undergo a hip preservation surgery called periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). This procedure involves realigning the socket for better coverage of the hip joint and preventing the cartilage from being overloaded. The labral tear can also be addressed by Hip arthroscopy (keyhole Surgery) to provide the best long term outcome.
A total hip replacement is the treatment of last resort for patients with severe arthritis where the hip joint is completely worn out.